Gum Inflammation – Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

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Gum inflammation is a common dental condition that can lead to infection and tooth loss if not treated promptly. Below are the causes of gum inflammation, early signs for detection, and the best treatment methods to protect oral health, saving costs on potential tooth loss treatment later on.

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What is gum inflammation?

The gums are the soft, pale pink tissue that surrounds the teeth, serving the function of protecting the teeth. The tooth socket bone lies beneath the gums, securing the teeth in place within the tooth socket. When experiencing gum inflammation, also known as gingivitis, the soft tissue around the teeth, including the gums and tooth socket bone, becomes swollen, red, and may bleed during brushing or eating. Prolonged gum inflammation can progress down to the bone, causing inflammation of the tooth socket bone.

Thống kê tỷ lệ viêm nướu chân răng
Rates of gum inflammation at different stages

According to the Medical Research Journal, globally, as per the World Health Organization’s statistics, the prevalence of gingivitis ranges from 70% to 90%, varying by country and affecting individuals of all ages, with some places reaching nearly 100% in adolescence.

In Vietnam, based on the nationwide oral health survey in 2019, the incidence of gum inflammation in children aged 12-14 is reported to be 44.7%. Gingivitis is a common oral health condition, estimated to affect approximately 47% of the Vietnamese population and over 50% of the global population

Causes of Gum Inflammation

Gingivitis is a common and easily acquired oral health condition with various underlying causes, including:

  1. Periodontal disease: The primary cause of gum inflammation, where bacteria residing in dental plaque damage the gums, triggering inflammation and infection.
  2. Poor oral hygiene: Inadequate and infrequent brushing leaves behind plaque and leftover food, providing a conducive environment for bacteria to thrive.
  3. Smoking: Tobacco use reduces blood circulation to the gums, weakens the immune system, and increases susceptibility to disease.
  4. Stress: Stress diminishes the body’s immune response, creating favorable conditions for the growth of disease-causing bacteria.
  5. Medications: Some systemic medications, such as those for hypertension or blood clotting, may elevate the risk of gum inflammation.
  6. Underlying health conditions: Diseases like diabetes, immune deficiencies, vitamin C deficiency, etc., can increase the likelihood of gum inflammation.
  7. Genetics: Genetic factors can contribute to a heightened susceptibility to gum inflammation.
  8. Pregnancy: Hormonal changes during pregnancy can increase sensitivity to gum inflammation.

Additionally, factors such as age, gender, diet, and habits can also play a role in contributing to the development of this condition.

Nguyên nhân gây viêm nướu
Some causes of gum inflammation

Symptoms of Gum Inflammation

Healthy gums are pale pink, non-swollen, painless, and do not bleed. Below are some early signs and symptoms of gum inflammation that can be identified:

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  • Red, swollen, and painful gums, bleeding during brushing or eating.
  • Spontaneous bleeding and, in severe cases, the presence of pus in gum inflammation.
  • Gums appearing bulky and covering the tooth’s neck.
  • Bad breath due to the accumulation of plaque.
  • Pain or discomfort while eating, especially with hot, cold, or sweet foods.
  • Loose teeth, sensitivity to temperature changes. Aching in the tooth socket bone.
  • Teeth appearing elongated or receding gums. Itching sensation along the gums.

Observable signs of gum inflammation include changes in gum color, ranging from pale red to deep red, swelling or enlargement, gum recession and loss of elasticity, easy bleeding, plaque buildup, and elevated teeth, along with the presence of bad breath

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Symptoms of gum inflammation

If left untreated, gum inflammation can escalate and become more severe. At this stage, symptoms become more pronounced, including increased pain, persistent bleeding, extensive pus formation, widespread swelling, severe bad breath, significant tooth mobility, and difficulties in chewing.

Treatment for Gum Inflammation

The treatment of gum inflammation aims to alleviate pain, halt the inflammatory process, and ensure the overall health of the teeth. At Saigon Implant Dental Clinic, currently the top-ranked Dental and Maxillofacial Center in Ho Chi Minh City, a standardized treatment protocol is followed, prioritizing safety and delivering comprehensive and effective results in addressing gum inflammation

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Facial and dental specialist at saigon implant dental clinic

The doctors working at the clinic are from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Ho Chi Minh City. Readers can register for free consultations with doctors such as Dr. Le Thi Hien, Dr. Tran Thi My Nga, Dr. Le Ngoc Quynh, Dr. Nguyen Thanh Linh,…

Currently, for gum inflammation conditions, patients undergo X-rays to assess the extent of inflammation. Subsequently, treatment is administered based on the severity of the condition, as follows:

Treatment for gum inflammation at the clinic

There are various methods for treating gum inflammation at the clinic. Depending on the severity of the inflammation, the doctor will prescribe appropriate treatment methods.

Mild level:

  • Teeth Cleaning:

Removal of plaque and bacteria along the tooth surface and gumline. Deep cleaning of the tooth’s root surface helps regenerate gum health and prevent the reattachment of plaque.

  • Use of Anti-inflammatory Medications:

Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs help reduce inflammation, fight bacteria, and improve symptoms. Typically used in the early stages or after teeth cleaning.

Note: The choice of medication for gum inflammation depends on the prescription from the doctor. It is not advisable to self-prescribe medications at home to avoid worsening the condition.

Safe, Simple, and Cost-Effective Treatment for Swollen Gums

Moderate to Severe Level:

  • Surgery for draining and treating pus, combined with treating inflammation around the tooth through scaling, root planing, and addressing issues like root canal treatment or gum trimming in cases of pus-associated gum inflammation.
  • Gum Reshaping Surgery: In situations where the gum has receded and pulled away from the tooth, creating a gap between the tooth and gum, a dental surgeon may perform surgery to reshape the gum and reposition it correctly.
  • Gum Trimming Surgery: This method involves removing excess gum tissue or accumulated bacteria, aiming to clean and reshape the gum.
  • Gum Contouring: This involves reshaping the gum around the tooth without removing any part of the gum. This method is often performed after gum trimming to enhance aesthetics
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  • Gum Lift: In cases of severe gum inflammation, a dentist may perform a gum lift surgery to reposition the gum to its correct place and ensure a tight fit around the tooth.
  • Tooth Neck Reconstruction: In certain situations, the neck of the tooth may be damaged or lost due to severe gum inflammation. A dental surgeon can perform a reconstruction surgery to address this issue.
  • Bone Grafting: In cases where inflammation has caused damage to the tooth’s bone, the dentist may perform a bone graft using either autogenous or artificial bone to regenerate the tooth socket.
  • Dental Implant Placement: For heavily loosened or extracted teeth, a dentist may recommend dental implant placement as a replacement solution.

Guide to Treating Gingivitis at Home

After visiting the dentist and being diagnosed with mild gingivitis, you can consider additional home treatments in conjunction with professional dental care. Here are some ways to manage gingivitis at home:

  1. Maintain good oral hygiene to prevent and control gingivitis. Brush your teeth properly and clean your mouth with a soft-bristled brush after meals.
  2. Use specialized mouthwash for gingivitis that contains antibacterial properties, reduces inflammation, and improves bad breath.

To effectively treat gingivitis, patients should combine these measures. It is advisable to seek prompt dental attention when noticing any unusual signs in the gums for appropriate consultation and treatment from a dentist

Cost of Treating Gingivitis

The cost of treating gingivitis depends on the severity and condition of the disease. Therefore, the cost of treating gingivitis varies based on whether it is mild or severe. However, generally, the expenses for treating gingivitis are not excessively high and can depend on various factors such as your location, the treatment facility, and the specific treatment method used.

Here is a price chart for treating gingivitis corresponding to some common treatment methods.

Services Pricing (vnd) Unit
Teeth Cleaning 300.000 2 arch
Periodontal 1.000.000 1 tooth
Tooth abscess 1.000.000 – 3.000.000 1 tooth
Gingivectomy 1.500.000 1 tooth

To obtain an accurate price, you can directly contact the clinic for a preliminary diagnosis or visit the clinic in person to consult with a dentist and receive specific pricing information. Note that prompt treatment for gingivitis is essential upon detecting symptoms to prevent tooth loss; the treatment cost will be higher if the condition progresses and becomes more severe.

Note for Individuals with Gingivitis

Gingivitis is prone to recurrence. Therefore, it is essential to first treat and eliminate the bacteria causing inflammation. Subsequently, maintaining a good daily oral care routine is crucial. Specific recommendations include:

  1. Keep oral hygiene by brushing teeth properly and regularly, at least twice a day.
  2. Schedule regular dental check-ups every 6 months for examination and advice from a dentist.
  3. Limit consumption of sugary, oily, and hard-to-chew foods that stick to the teeth.
  4. Stay hydrated, avoid alcohol and tobacco consumption.
  5. Establish a balanced diet rich in green vegetables, fruits, and vitamins.
  6. Engage in regular physical exercise, and manage stress and fatigue.
  7. Use dental protection measures such as dental floss, gum massaging tools, etc.
  8. Attend dental check-ups regularly and seek professional advice if any abnormalities are noticed in oral health.
Các cách điều trị sưng nướu răng hàm trên tại nhà
Some considerations when treating gingivitis

Thus, detecting and treating gingivitis early can help prevent complications and safeguard oral health. Take good care of your oral hygiene and protect your teeth!

Frequently Asked Questions about Gingivitis

Is gingivitis dangerous?

Yes, if left untreated, gingivitis can lead to serious complications such as tooth loss, inflammation of the tooth socket, or bloodstream infection. Therefore, early treatment is essential to prevent complications.

Can gingivitis be cured?

Yes, if detected and treated early, gingivitis can be completely cured. However, it tends to recur if good oral care is not maintained.

Is gingivitis contagious?

The bacteria causing the disease can be transmitted through oral contact, such as sharing personal items, or through fluids in the mouth, such as saliva, blood, or fluids from gum wounds.

How is gingivitis treated in children?

Children should be taken to a specialized dentist for examination and appropriate treatment. Parents should help children maintain clean oral hygiene and ensure they have a balanced diet to enhance immunity.

Can pregnant women be treated for gingivitis?

Pregnant women can still be treated for gingivitis with medication and safe measures such as mouthwash and oral cleaning. However, it is advisable to consult a doctor for advice on appropriate and safe treatment during pregnancy.

How is gingivitis around wisdom teeth treated?

Wisdom teeth often lack space to grow or cannot emerge from the jawbone. In such cases, bacteria can easily accumulate in this empty space, leading to cavities, inflammation, and swelling around the wisdom teeth.

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To treat inflammation around wisdom teeth, it’s necessary to visit a dental clinic for examination and diagnosis of the gum and wisdom teeth condition. The dentist will then recommend an appropriate treatment method. In mild cases, extracting the wisdom tooth may be suggested to alleviate discomfort.

For severe inflammation, anti-inflammatory and pain-reducing measures may be employed. After the infection subsides, the dentist may advise removing the wisdom tooth to prevent the risk of recurrence.


Gingivitis around wisdom teeth is a common dental issue that can significantly impact oral health if not treated promptly and correctly. To prevent gingivitis, individuals should pay attention to maintaining proper and clean oral hygiene.

When experiencing unusual symptoms such as pain around wisdom teeth, gingivitis with pus, or swollen and inflamed gums, it’s crucial to consult a dentist promptly for examination and appropriate treatment. Early treatment of gingivitis helps prevent dangerous complications and ensures long-term oral health.

We hope this information helps readers recognize early signs of gingivitis and encourages them to plan for timely dental check-ups and treatment. For any inquiries, please contact the Hotline: (+84) 986.43.82.86 for more detailed and personalized assistance.

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